Inheritance is not a design pattern. Inheritance is one of the way to making design pattern. if you can understand Decorator pattern, You will be able to understand that why we use inheritance in java OOP. How about check this website : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decorator_pattern
As other answers have said, inheritance is not a design pattern: it is just inheritance.
Are you actually asking whether there is a design pattern that uses just a single class hierarchy, using just inheritance and not composition? There is such a design pattern: the Template Method pattern.