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user3059024 February 2016

Using Python's sympy module to express a complicated function

How can I symbolically express the following equation using python's sympy module, such that I could later find the second derivative and therefore compute the Hessian matrix?

The Function

enter image description here

What I've tried:

import sympy
Nc,Ns,Tc,Ysc,theta,theta_star,t,dt,sigma_s,measured,simulated=sympy.symbols(' Nc Ns Tc Ysc theta theta_star t dt sigma_s  measured simulated ')
chi=(1/2*Nc*Ns) * sympy.mpmath.nsum(   1 / Tc *  sympy.integrate(  ((simulated - measured)  /  sigma_s )    **2) , (t,0,Tc))

The Error:

  File "C:\Anaconda1\lib\site-packages\sympy\concrete\expr_with_limits.py", line 358, in __new__
    "specify dummy variables for %s" % function)

ValueError: specify dummy variables for (-measured + simulated)**2/sigma_s**2


jgfооt February 2016

The problem is that you are telling it to integrate with the integration variable of t, but the function ((simulated - measured) / sigma_s ) **2 doesn't have t as a variable.

asmeurer February 2016

Don't use sympy.mpmath.nsum. mpmath functions are for numerical calculations only. Do represent a sum symbolically, use sympy.Sum. It works like this

In [3]: Sum(f(x), (x, 0, n))
  ╲   f(x)
x = 0

Secondly, SymPy has to be told explicitly when one variable depends on another. I'm unclear what s and c are in your equation. If they are variables, then you should create symbols s and c. Importantly, t needs to be a variable, and things that depend on t need to be functions like

thetastar, t = symbols('thetastar t')
y_sc = Function('y')

and then use

y_sc(thetastar, t)

(if s and c are supposed to be variables as well, then you should use y = Function('y') and y(s, c, thetastar, t)).

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Asked in February 2016
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