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noobprogger February 2016
### How do I end this while loop with a precision of 0.00001 ([C++],[Taylor Series])?

I'm working on this program that approximates a taylor series function. I have to approximate it so that the taylor series function stops approximating the sin function with a precision of .00001. In other words,the absolute value of the last approximation minus the current approximation equals less than or equal to 0.00001. It also approximates each angle from 0 to 360 degrees in 15 degree increments. My logic seems to be correct, but I cannot figure out why i am getting garbage values. Any help is appreciated!

```
#include <math.h>
#include <iomanip>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <cmath>
double fact(int x){
int F = 1;
for(int i = 1; i <= x; i++){
F*=i;
}
return F;
}
double degreesToRadians(double angle_in_degrees){
double rad = (angle_in_degrees*M_PI)/180;
return rad;
}
using namespace std;
double mySine(double x){
int current =99999;
double comSin=x;
double prev=0;
int counter1 = 3;
int counter2 = 1;
while(current>0.00001){
prev = comSin;
if((counter2 % 2) == 0){
comSin += (pow(x,(counter1))/(fact(counter1)));
}else{
comSin -= (pow(x,(counter1))/(fact(counter1)));
}
current=abs(prev-comSin);
cout<<current<<endl;
counter1+=2;
counter2+=1;
}
return comSin;
}
using namespace std;
int main(){
cout<<"Angle\tSine"<<endl;
for (int i = 0; i<=360; i+=15){
cout<<i<<"\t"<<mySine(degreesToRadians(i));
}
}
```

Here is an example which illustrates how to go about doing this. Using the pow function and calculating the factorial at each iteration is very inefficient -- these can often be maintained as running values which are updated alongside the sum during each iteration.

In this case, each iteration's addend is the product of two factors: a power of x and a (reciprocal) factorial. To get from one iteration's power factor to the next iteration's, just multiply by x*x. To get from one iteration's factorial factor to the next iteration's, just multiply by ((2*n+1) + 1) * ((2*n+1) + 2), before incrementing n (the iteration number).

And because these two factors are updated multiplicatively, they do not need to exist as separate running values, they can exists as a single running product. This also helps avoid precision problems -- both the power factor and the factorial can become large very quickly, but the ratio of their values goes to zero relatively gradually and is well-behaved as a running value.

So this example maintains these running values, updated at each iteration:

- "sum" (of course)
- "prod", the ratio: pow(x, 2n+1) / factorial 2n+1
- "tnp1", the value of 2*n+1 (used in the factorial update)

The running update value, "prod" is negated every iteration in order to to factor in the (-1)^n.

I also included the function "XlatedSine". When x is too far away from zero, the sum requires more iterations for an accurate result, which takes longer to run and also can require more precision than our floating-point values can provide. When the magnitude of x goes beyond PI, "XlatedSine" finds another x, close to zero, with an equivalent value for sin(x), then uses this shifted x in a call to MaclaurinSine.

```
#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
// Importing cmath seemed wrong LOL, so define Abs and PI
static double Abs(double x) { return x < 0 ? -x : x; }
const do
```

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Asked in February 2016

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